Dr .AMBIKA HANCHATE
IYS chapter -Karnataka ,INDIA
|We all human beings include many creatures on this earth living on this planet rather than other planets in this universe .Do you know why ? Because only on this planet we have all sufficient basic features to lead a life with water ,air ,food , education ,health ,energy ,economical ways ,shelter ,clothes etc . Even myths also says ” Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam “, that means we all are one family ” even can call it gender equality .don’t think that to where my words are connecting ,of course it’s reaching the same point of sustainable development goals (SDG) .|
“Where there is a unitenss ,peace globe will begin
Where there is the education ,gender equality will begin
Where there is respect (sanskar) , beliveness will begin .
SDG is not only a blueprint to achieve the 17 SDGs goals .It is our prime duty , responsibility ,until we can’t put a volunteer step hence we can’t create a perfect /indeed SDG ‘ Globe. Then how to deal with this in the theme of SDG’s ,let me explain in my point of view / as I know .
Introducing about SDG’s in brief
No poverty: UN has interconnected 2030 Agendas ,whiCh means it targeting to decrease the level of poverty line and along with UN ,many of poverty programme by other organisations are doing well ,as per the survey their is 3% target hit on to decrease but can’t reach out more ,even people are flowing from the extreme poverty without having basic needs too .
Zero Hunger : to fulfilling the tummy ,we all are working .But it’s raising globally cause of many facts in there unemployment ,lack of humanity ,corruption etc .Overall million people are affected and dying from the malnutrition in many of countries
Good health and well being : As we know health is wealth ,and it is our happiness ,activity ,having a well nutritions food but really is it enough to have good health ? No .As a volunteer we should raise the voice to give awareness about TB ,cancer ,aids , covid19 like many complex diseases which really need to be made free from the globe.
Quality education ” media took is universal right that’s why many countries adapted under constitutional level and planned in various levels to achieve Zero illiteracy by providing all kinds of sources. Also we are back to reaching the goal, we are unable to afford well infrastructures for learning .
Gender equality : equaliness between the male and female in all fields ,salary ,properties etc are must be needed ,it’s a human rights too in the universal .and one of the main heart centre goal in the SDGs ,but still we are facing many critical phases are in political ,social norms , blind belief, and other structural issues etc,
so that we are not reaching fully toward what the UN has a goal on .
Clean water and sanitation :very close thing we should know to first that is we are in endangered because if the environmental issue ,decreasing of surface water level ,deforestation ,mining , unbalancing nature system etc but targeting sanitation and safe water for all is the main theme that’s why every year in many occasion all kind government body’s ,instructions ,school ,colleges are made campaigns and many activities .
“If earth is wet ,we alive ,otherwise we will be dry without drop “
Affordable and clean energy : the whole universe is planted from the energy ,scientifically it’s true too ,every single object has its own energy itself .And this drives the whole universe ,then how could we imagine our life without energy ? There is many type sources are on earth in there some of renewable and some of not ,but still 800 millions are lack to use from the electricity ,so we have to invest on this to achieve the goal .But how ?With a doing these little actions :
“Switch off the lights while no use ,use LED bulbs instead of consuming electricity ,taught to people ,aware them.etc
Decent work and economic growth : here employment and economic level are emphasise to grow towards the Nation development .And off course without that it’s very critical to handle anything and the decent work meant here No pay gaps in between gender payment ,create opportunities ,before to stand up with the new startup in the economical zone ,there should be the green think to be tagged for go Green etc .
Industry ,innovation and infrastructure : those all are becoming a great stamina standard for the global development goals in all ways for the transport , communication Link’s will be connect from one to another nation ,innovations will build strong empowering young generations with technically and scientifically overall it’s playing vital role in the SDGs
Reduced inequalities : the title only describes about the inequalities ,it should not be involved in the any kind sectors especially in income and power category .without making disappropriate , discrimination ,guiltiness and look of the barriers we should not measure .With better investment and share focus must be drive to reach the goals .
Sustainable cities and communities :
This goal addresses the situation of slums and arranges their transport ,education ,basic necessities , cleanness ,clean and waste management etc topics will be covered but many surveys and data are proved that the urban areas are growing faster than the pollution themselves, hence relevant Consequences have arrived.
Responsible consumption and production :
Food to all and all for the production that means whatever the globe has been produce by the industries on this earth or may it providing by the nature ,we all are equally right holders to have it ,but our over extrication of resources ,waste distribution ,degradation of resources are highly making responsible us to reach this goal .
“Without production -No consumption
Without managing balanced nature -No lives “
Climate action :Climate action :it is one of the very important actions and everyone’s question about living for fresh air . it’s not a notice board alert goal it’s our awareness danger alert goal too ,without negligence we should start the work on it .
,because We all know day to day how we are polluting air ,water and everything by ruining our ozone layer simultaneously ,despite the media coverage we must work against this to control greenhouse emission, climate action etc.
In the Paris agreement ,suggesting a revitalized course to achieve the goal (signed back in 2016)and drastic action is still required to mitigate all clients related issues.
Life below water : specifically related to life under the sea ,topics covered for conserving sea related food ,how to sustainable oceans ,and marine resources this goal stand for completely of overfishing ,floods and impacts of ocean creatures generation .How universal organizational bodies are working for save towards wild animals for their life progress to coming generation like that in the oceans many Microorganisms are living so we have to achieve to save them as voluntarily and many’s are doing so well .
Life on land : this goal include the topic of agriculture and biodiversity ,day to day a new factory ,companies and real estate are landing on the land with deforestation by this cause our crop yielding are being less with using of more chemicals ,malnutrition are happening ,overall it’s cleaning/cut off land greenness .And another side wild animals poaching ,animal extinctions are making our life difficulty and our ecosystem too imbalanced .
Peace ,justice and strong institutions:
SDGs one of the main goals to promote peace globally ,say No WAR ,this goal can’t be reached overnight . possible only by the consistency of work by hand to hand . international homicides, child sex ,human trafficking ,child labour ,domestic violence so many topics will be covered under this goal .Yet to be achieving this goal by volunteer.. everywhere to self educate and awake to others ,and I am proud to say as I international ambassador peace I am happy to giving my promoting work by the blogging or positing work . Anyhow it’s a very large and deepest goal let’s all do together .
Partnership for the goals :
It’s all about to say that how to achieve all SDG goals ,by partnership ,fundraising , and innovatives ,may many off private organisations and multinational companies are donating towards to reach this goal as took a part in the CSR .And it’s best way to get engage with other partnerships to breaking the issues chains as well jointing the SDGs goal with many of exports ,scholars talk ,writers etc .It’s massive amalgamation of wonders to reach the goal .
Overall each goal has set its own framework in the way with a different step in the 2030 agenda . for what the reason, UN set’s this body in 2015 by UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY ,we all must be stand-up with those goal activities .By active partness , involving as self interest
,contributing some of our time ,donating as possible for the food program ,conducting campaigns ,and giving a little patience with peace to the SDGs 17 .Sure ,one day we reach our goals. if not all ,at least in some.
SDG is not only a mission .It’s mankind’s vision for healthy life to each one in the globe .
SDG, is not only a step to making for the greatest globe , it’s a heroism of humanity .
SDGs is not only a promotional banner ,it is our life and death map .
“SAVE THE LIVES AND REACH THE 17GOALS”
|2-The Important of Social Inclusion in Somaliland|
Ambassador of Sustainability, Somaliland
|Along with other social issues that have existed within the Somali community, social exclusion becomes one of the important problems that create conflicts. Some clans are not taken into consideration in the government decisions and social activities because they are viewed as less compared to others. Minorities are not the only group facing this problem. Women are also excluded from the parliament house. In this article I am going to discuss the importance of social inclusion for these two groups; women and minority groups.|
The minority groups in the Somali community, who are estimated as one third of the Somali people(approximately 2,000,000), are facing a huge challenge in getting their basic rights. Somaliland elections is clan based system were major clans have the power to decide who will be the next president. This means that minorities can’t be elected or have equal seats at the decision making table. Social segregation of these ethnic groups made them face much exclusion in jobs, settlements and education.. etc. In fact, the recent situation of Covid-19 affected these groups the most due to their vulnerability.
There has been a progress in gender equality in Somaliland for the last ten years, yet women are facing discrimination in jobs and politics.They are paid less compared to men. Culturally, Somali women’s role outside of their home is viewed as invaluable.
They can’t have seats in the parliament house or even quota.Even though community elders refuse women political participation, few discussions are taking place on this regard. Exclusion of women from all decision making processes both on governmental and societal level made Somali women’s voice weak. Their issues such as rape and gender based violence are always overlooked. Social inclusion can be implemented in many ways. We can initiate awareness programs for the community regarding the rights of both women and minority groups in political participation and in other aspects of life.
Somali women are becoming stronger because of education; they are activist, business owners and social entrepreneurs. To achieve gender equality we need an actual implementation of SDG4. We need to establish quota for women in parliament. Social equality is so important because one of the main causes of the civil war was preventing some clans from practicing their political rights. The government can also create programs for minorities such as skills training and facilitate access to education, create jobs as well as better settlement. In my conclusion, social development should be free from any discrimination and include every member of the community.
|3-Web-Based Teaching to Promote Sustainability|
Dr. Sanghamitra Adhya*
Associate Professor, Department of Geography, Kalyani Mahavidyalaya, West Bengal, India
|Technologies can improve teaching environments in all fields of education, increase learning skills of students, reduce education expenses and improve the learning environment for students. The use of internet as a learning medium is attractive, accessible from anywhere and anytime in the world. During crisis period internet is a basic necessity for life. The educational systems around the world have witnessed the greatest shift towards online learning as countries are on lockdown condition in 2020 due to the coronavirus outbreak. The teaching methods, digital skills, virtual classroom management and developments are changing very rapidly through internet. It is especially important at this point of time to reach as many students as possible and teachers are continuously updating their content standards for all subjects as well as implementing new web-based assessments. There is great potential in alternative teaching and learning methods. |
The Massive Open Online Course (MOOC), Project Management Professional (PMP) Certification and webinars are popular approaches for teaching online. The emergence of information technologies, creation of simulated situation and virtual explorations opened a new horizon for teaching and learning. The application of Geographical Information System (GIS) helps to take decision in many fields of education. The last twenty years has generally seen a steady expansion of web-based learning environment for Geographic education. The design, development of online teaching in Geography can create geospatial revolution. The application of geospatial mapping in public health could be traced back to 1854 when the water source responsible for the cholera outbreak in London was identified using Geographical Information System (GIS) by an English Physician John Snow.
In the present time, the application of geospatial mapping has extended to various other aspects of public health like disease surveillance, spatial epidemiology, child immunization tracking and health policy research. Collection and analysis of geospatial data in project evaluation can be done by linking multiple geospatial data points like location of the study area, chronological order of land cover changes from academic literature and the influence of external factors like forest fire, expansion of settlement, agricultural production etc. Pixels are the main units of analysis representing the Earth’s surface in digital images. The mapping tools enable the spatial representation of the earth’s surface features and its relationship to natural and built environments strengthening the planning capabilities in all spheres. Geospatial data helps to identify evaluation of questions like the effectiveness of web-based projects in data analysis and the heterogeneity in the effectiveness of the secondary data-based project.
The information on the web is virtually platform independent, unequalled in its capacity to reach many users at minimal costs. The web puts new dimension into the map as a cartographic metaphor. Digital maps, presented in a web browser allow for the dynamic and interactive dissemination of geospatial data. They offer new mapping techniques compared to traditional printed maps. Web maps can be classified into two main categories, static and dynamic web maps.
In a technological era, television, electronic toys, video games, mobile, computer, internet influence in receiving and processing information about geography through multi-sensory sources. As a result, field-based teaching techniques dramatically changed due to decreasing field survey in nature. Geographical websites, social-networking sites, Google Earth, Google Maps, YouTube videos, three-dimensional stereoscopic video movies, photo sharing sites like Panorama Studio, Flicker, Picasa, documents, images, graphs, facts and figures to teach and learn geography online.
An emergency planning promotes safety awareness and shows the education institutional commitment to the stake holders- students, teachers, guardians and communities. Preplanning is necessary for emergency situation. An urgent need for rapid decisions, shortage of time, lack of resources and trained personnel can lead to chaos during an emergency. Covid-19 has forced educational institutions across the world to suspend physical classrooms and shift to online classes.
There are many mobile learning apps which can be part of human life and add fun to the learning. The following lessons can be followed in online teaching:
Utilization of open data resources and tools Using of geospatial methods within mixed method approaches Coordination among multidisciplinary teams Dynamic learning and operating skills in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) Live online programs
A technologically sound educator can teach the students and digitally record the whole session. Then he/she can upload it to the web and add daily supplementary videos, notes, comments and feedback from students over a period of time. It would be available online and could be viewed by anyone who wants to learn. The national digital library can be formed in this way.
The location independent e-learning is a well-rounded and effective educational practice needed for the capacity building of young students especially during crisis period. It will develop skills that will drive their employability, productivity, health and wellbeing in the coming years and ensure the overall progress of education.
|4-PEACE THROUGH THE COLLECTIVE EFFORTS AND RENAISSANCE OF APPROPRIATE THOUGHTS|
Ms Suchismita Ghoshal
GD Goenka University, India
|Peace is one of the broadly spoken topics in the history of humankind. The simple concept of establishment of societal companionship and fraternity against cruelty and massacres is called peace. Fear, violence, dependency etc turn us into fragile living beings and eventually make this world an unbearable place to live. Conflicts between two nations, groups or among some entities not only lessens the harmony of the situation we live in but also the cracks of destruction are easily noticeable on the walls of the entities engaged in feuds. Since the past few decades some peacemaking and diplomatic organizations have indulged in establishing peace worldwide and they have emerged in terms of customizing some ethical rules to avoid bloodshed games, let it be a civil war or wars between countries. For example, Globally renowned and authentic organization ‘UN’ has a separate internationally functional segment to look after the issues of conflict and they are in charge of spreading peace and neutralizing the effects of war-prone groups or countries. While we talk about peace among nations , it is also important to have an in-depth insight of the mental peace which in general means the tranquilizing state one achieves through some procedures of consistency and particulation removing the dirt, stimulative thoughts, toxicity and restlessness from one’s mind. Through regular meditation, self-possession, controlling extravagant emotions and a wholesome exercise of self-love everyday, we can eventually achieve the state where we find ourselves at peace. We can think sharply, work straight and without hesitation and finally will be rewarded with the charm of life. Let it be escalated at a larger meaning or for a self-centric one, peace is a collective effort, complementary done by the endeavourers related to it. Peace at any cost is necessary to absorb the positivity and the state of euphorically progressiveness into our cells while exfoliating the contamination and further spread of negativities. Reuniting for the noble cause of convention of sustainability through peace and prosperity, our collective efforts will ascertingly be counted as justifiable if we choose to contribute harmoniously through the medium of our own expression for the integral betterment of the world’s health, let the medium be anything like art, culture, literature, speaking abilities, graffitis, placards, science etc that can leave a prolonged impression in the minds to make a renaissance. We all shall unitedly and unequivocally be destined to rule through the implementation of peace, love, freedom and friendship.|
|5-Global peace sustainability|
By, Ambika Hanchate ,
SDG Global ambassador -INDIA Chapter
Email : firstname.lastname@example.org
|When the globe become residential place ,|
Peaceful points will be inserted as breath .
May it becomes a faith , chanting soul and most admirable routine work job to our life like how the mother teach to us to live in discipline ,cleanness ,giving response with respectfully to elders ,be in silent while do not enter in wrong karmas Etc ,same here also goes as it is for keeping sustainability peace ,sustain greetings for everyone ,pray for needy people ,help to indeed one in critical situations ,be a moral supporter, guider ,innovator for every tough task holder on the every issuing situation because being a enlighten human being ,being a humanity minded one and soft skill personality person only can do the best things for making someone’s life hood .And he only could be able to meet the all layers overcome any difficulties in the life .And that’s the point to behold here yes , we can do anything with our possibilities will make the right way for every stepping out person personal life on this globe and for to globe in where we are staying ..Except these , what we can accept more in the globe ?
A confidential life will give you a joyful journey to bring a a lot happiness in a life moments .A peaceful mind can be state your identity with believing you more in emotions that what you had and what to be hold in next way of life , A spiritual soul will get perfect clarity to spread the awareness about how to keep peace and sustain it in everywhere it’s all pinching giving a light clue that we are rotating around us as freshness air for greenery life .
So, always think twice before spreading any work . sketch those things on a paper ,practice it ,discuss this with your beloved one ,get an idea from educationists or any mentor related to the field ,just move with your steps as you can . surely everyone will listen and it creates a nice journey along with more likely souls like you . As scientific theory and my belief too is – everyone is connected in this universe by their thinking and actions , at the same time same emotions and works to attract each other’s so that in the globe what we are trying to be sustain about which relevant content surely it will .So take a oath and go towards that .Either it is educational sustainability, Greenery -Go Green project ,Build employment system -in skills , making Startup in young minds programming for global peace ,humanity or environment, friendly entrepreneur etc .Whatever you can do as your freedom with understanding concept but the efforts and vision should be contribute regarding sustainability .Because what we have that only we can able to put in inputs for the society by the reflection as results of cause and effects will be reflected on everywhere as sharp rays .Then why to late ,get your pen and paper ,give a few exercise to your mind ,start to the work as volunteer to SDG work and spread positive vibes.
With my experience : as a blogger I continually yield my mind to give always possibilities in freshness on educational base social awareness . And lettering to people through my posts , articles and short writings .Hope it will connect to those SDG workers who can shine more on this . because suitability doesn’t get meaning without togetherness .It needs sharing knowledge ,experience ,ideas ,creativity with putting all inputs resources which are available from so far.
Being a Volunteer I love to do this job and I invite all youngsters as you can join your hands and say All for one and one for all .
Overview : Today ,on 16th september 2021 ,the globe is celebrating world ozone day. On this day we should ask a self questionnaire ,for what the reason , what do we have to do ?How can we protect our lives with every world .What role we have to play for generations etc . As a responsible person how should I deal with the environment and what society really needs help from us ? It’s assured , It doesn’t ask any costly gifts like us for daily routine instead that it’s stretching hands to grow the ecosystem balancing .Enough .
” Nature never had any wishes without safety for creature ,
Globe never asked any help without caring the home of ecosystem” – Hence , be a good human being ,think twice for doing anything before to hurt or damage on peace ,greenery ,unemployment generate ,poverty Etc .And never forget the mantra what we are today it’s the results of our yesterday’s karma (work ) ,So ,Think better do well ! Ease life with peace sustainably and spread the Hi-Vibes of SDG .It’s the matter for globe peace .
|6-The actions on Zero Hunger|
By, Ambika Hanchate ,
SDG Global ambassador -INDIA Chapter
Email : email@example.com
|According the database of world population projection is 7,874,965,825 (7.7 billion) presently. That means yearly it has been change by nearly 1.05% and As per world population clock the current crude birth rate of the world is 18.9 per 1000 population and death rate is 7.5 per 1000 population .Just imagine how rapidly our pollution is growing in which speedy rate ? Can you imagine, in total, how much food we have to create ? Total how much land we should yield for agriculture? In those lands how much it has to be good for yielding organically ? What about the content using for land fertilisation because nowadays many place agro based lands are polluted due to chemical fertilise using so these type many questions will be arise in front us when we think about the SDG related parts of work .Of course ,it’s a big topic, need many expertise ,manageable and succeeded persons to discuss for each other before doing or taking actions in beginning .As youths we have a tones of capabilities ,abilities and many sorts of skills to reach any giant steps in life .But without mentor might be it quite difficult to reach probable destination in the way of going .|
So that UN general assembly were set up this 17 SDG activities on 2015 with interlinked of whatever human basic related fundamental rights with having mottos ,agendas and perfection action plans with subordinate different bodies .Under this UN, many sub body commuters are working like food security committee, security council ,Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, the International Court of Justice, and the UN Secretariat. Donations for food ,child care by UNESCO Etc ..And across the universe uncountable number of youngsters ,adults ,educationists ,environmentalists so and so people are connected to do anything as alike make the earth free from all the 17 SDG issues as well .Then why to late take the oath as volunteer and promise self as possible we can act towards it and will do that her as best as our knowledge and those only become a real heroes in my point of view .
And the Actions are in my mind circle
To making Null of poverty and zero hunger ,many institutions conducting campaigns ,in the college and high grade schools teaching staff are providing special knowledge ,giving assignments as physical action by fund raise ,contest, helping hand actions ,dramas etc including cultural activities .These all will help them how to interact with society and what currently happening at our surrounds and the globe .Only books or syllabus can’t give fully knowledge sometime extra- curricular activities also will refer us to get ready for future steps .
And the second step is ; in many sides many cultural and social activities will conducted by huge corporate organizations, societal institutions ,rich colonial group wise ,or any business background people’s will conduct the programmes whoever they are , I request them please stop to buy bulk amount of crackers ,cakes ,lightings , music ,dance shows ,don’t know in how many types they are wasting money on versatile arranging programmes for every single parties ,I am really not saying don’t do these all and I have no right but as a responsible thinker and citizen of this society I just praying you as request please if possible cancelled / avoid sound populations ,power wastage ,water pollution ,peaceless activities instead that start to arrange a food activities to them who really need food ,donate that amount for really indeed places , celebrate your parties ,wishes ,gifts with them who are standing without food on this earth .Show your humanity your richness by the quality work ,I am sure it will give a big lesson to teach someone who is living near your home ,colony and upcoming generations also will follow these drapes as ritual .
One small step can create a big historical day in the earth .
Third actions : At home ,yes .This must be start today onwards at home by the parents .Which students will get more pocket money from their working parents / uncle / aunt etc ..They should prepare themselves to donate each day a little amount at school donate box through school management .It will come for useful to grant fund for needy people .It’s really useful and benefitted all the time .
Fourth actions : tag the board in every hotel , restaurants, street food shops as “Don’t waste food ,for wasting penalty for double change as you got per plate ” these actions have to come from the state govt / Central govt. When it will be legal then only people will become mentally super .
Fifth and final one actions : it’s very light and simple .Everyday before to eat serving plate ,in front of the meal pray for everyone alike “God i am praying you please provide the same food or whatever you can for every hungry person” keep your blessings on every poverty person” .In praying system what I believed and religious thought too will say that prayer never will lose anything if such a true heart make the prays .One pray equal to another meal for someone .” So make it a habit from today onwards .
Conclusion :No one thought will go failure without leaving its mark as identity on remarkable actions alike without doing any efforts ,hard work with smart /intelligence a small to small actions nothing we can see the changes in world .
Hence ,being a human ,being human ,being educated ,being a sophisticated civilized ,pour your best actions on No poverty and turn it into Zero hunger .
“When we come to know the reality and make it possibility to resolve all generation to generation critical issues of SDGs then only the earth becomes free from SDGs .
|7- Climate Crisis And Its Solution – Pakistan’s Perspective |
By; Wardah Malik
|The global climate crisis poses a number of threats to the well-being and prosperity of the people of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The country already witnesses several climate- and weather-related natural hazards due to its geographical diversity and a varied tropical, continental climate (hot summers and cold winters). Pakistan experiences recurring heatwaves and droughts, riverine and flash floods, landslides, and sea storms or cyclones. Climate change is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of these events as well as exacerbate people’s vulnerabilities. It is projected that there will be significant increase in temperature across the country and especially in the snow-covered mountainous north, which will lead to faster glacial melt.|
Heatwaves are likely to become more frequent and intense all over Pakistan, and the number of ‘hot’ days and nights are expected to increase significantly. Changes in rainfall trends are not clear, though there may be some shifting of seasons (peak summer rain shifting to August and peak winter rains shifting to March). Extremely wet days are likely to increase across all of the country except in Sindh Province, which will experience more dry days (leading to the increased frequency of drought).
Climate change has the potential to trigger wide-ranging and strong negative feedback loops between livelihoods and health.
Pakistan is a low-middle income country that remains predominantly agrarian, although it is progressively industrializing its economy and over one-third of the population now resides in towns and cities. The country relies heavily on its climate sensitive land, water and forest resources for livelihoods and food security. Agriculture remains an important source of employment for 42 per cent of the population. Almost 90 per cent of agriculture depends on irrigation from the glacier-fed River Indus and its tributaries. Climate change has hastened the pace of glacier melt, which will increase the incidence of glacier lake outburst floods (GLOF) and flash floods downstream. Faster glacier melt, higher temperatures, shifting seasons and erratic rainfall patterns are all altering the flow of the River Indus and this will increasingly affect agriculture-related activities, food production and livelihoods. Already, 39 percent of the population had experienced multidimensional poverty.
Impacts to health (notably via heat exhaustion, malnutrition, the emergence of vector-borne diseases such as Dengue Fever, and the increased burden of waterborne diseases) will reduce people’s ability to work and earn a livelihood.
Migrants, internally displaced persons, and religious and ethnic minorities will be highly vulnerable as they are often marginalized to hazard-prone land and face barriers to accessing healthcare, including financial barriers due to informal employment. Climate change may potentially increase the number of child marriages, premature births and domestic violence. Women and children will also be more vulnerable to malnourishment and malnutrition due to lower food production.